Solar activity reached moderate levels in 24 hours to 00:30 UTC on January 30, 2022, due to a long-duration M1.1 solar flare at 23:32 UTC on January 29 from Region 2936 (N17E05, Dkc/beta).

The region produced numerous C-flares, the largest of which was a C6.7 at 12:14 UTC, and it continued to grow in size and spot count through the period.

An area of flux behind the SE limb produced a C7 flare at 16:55 UTC. The remaining regions were either stable or in decay.1

The M-class flare produced an asymmetric, full halo CME biased to the NE, first visible in LASCO C2 imagery at 23:36 UTC. The CME is expected to impact Earth late February 1 or early February 2.2

AR 2936 had rapidly grown into one of the largest active regions of young Solar Cycle 25, quadrupling in size in only 48 hours.3 As it turns toward Earth, the chance of an Earth-directed solar flare is increasing.

A 10cm Radio Burst was associated with the M1.1 flare, lasting 58 minutes and with a peak flux of 320 sfu.

A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare.

This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

Solar wind parameters in 24 hours to 00:30 UTC reflected the continued influence of a positive polarity CH HSS. Solar wind speeds ranged from initial values near 450 km/s to between 500 – 550 km/s after 08:30 UTC.

Total field strength decreased throughout the period from a peak of 9 nT to around 5 nT by the end of the day, and Bz was sustained southward for prolonged periods multiple times throughout the period.

Solar wind parameters are expected to be enhanced under positive polarity CH HSS influence on January 30 and February 1.

Geomagnetic field activity ranged from quiet to active levels this period in response to positive polarity CH HSS influence.